AB ve Türkiye’de Kamuda Görev Yapan Öğretmenlerin İstihdam Durumlarının İncelenmesi

Hilal BUYUKGOZE

Özet


Bu çalışma, Avrupa Birliği üye ülkeleri ve Türkiye’de kamu sektöründe ISCED 1, 2 ve 3 düzeyindeki okullarda görev yapan öğretmenlerin mesleğe giriş, istihdam ve çalışma şartları, yer değişikliği koşulları, maaşlar, ek ödeme ve emeklilik uygulamaları açısından karşılaştırmalı bir değerlendirmesini ayrıntılarıyla inceleyip sunmaktadır. Çalışma, Avrupa’da devlet okullarında çalışmakta olan öğretmenlerin esas olarak 3 farklı şekilde istihdam edildiğini göstermektedir: (1) sözleşmeli statü, (2) devlet memuru statüsü ve (3) kariyer devlet memuru statüsü. Ayrıca, “yedek öğretmenler” ise 1 gün ila birkaç ay veya bir eğitim-öğretim yılı boyunca istihdam edilebilmektedirler. Bunun yanı sıra, bu gibi geçici istihdam durumlarında gereklilikler farklılaşabilmektedir. AB ülkelerindeki öğretmenlerin çalışma şartları incelendiğinde ise, bu şartların bazen karşılıklı olarak bazen de ilgili yasal düzenleme esas alınarak sendikalar üzerinden merkezi anlaşmalar yolu ile belirlendiği tespit edilmiştir. Emeklilik hakkını ve maaşını tam olarak hak edebilmek için çoğu AB ülkesinde yaş sınırı 65 olarak belirlenmiştir. Genel bir sonuç olarak, AB ülkelerinin çoğunluğunda öğretmenlerin kariyerlerine öncelikle kısa süreli sözleşmeler ile başladığı, profesyonel öğretmenlik kariyerleri boyunca edindikleri deneyim ve nitelikler doğrultusunda daha uzun süreli sözleşmelere geçtikleri ve son olarak ise devlet memuru statüsüne geçirildikleri ifade edilebilir.

Anahtar Kelimeler


AB üye ülkeleri, istihdam durumu, öğretmenler, kamu sektörü, Türkiye

Tam Metin:

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